Current Issue

IReflect – Student Journal of International Relations

IReflect Vol. 3, 2 (2016)

Vollständige Ausgabe | Complete Issue (PDF, 5216 kB)

– Articles –

Changes in the Brazilian Migration Policy between Security and Human Rights Concerns | Fabian Lischkowitz

War is always Gendered even if Women are absent from its Study. A Discussion | Anna Kulemann

The Other in International Relations Theory – Trapped Between States and Non-State Actors | Philipp Neubauer

Go with the Flow? International Capital Flows and the Euro Crisis | Cédric Maxime Koch

– I reflect –

Macht- und Wissensordnungen im Kleinformat: Reflexionen zur Ausstellung „Angezettelt“. Antisemitische und rassistische Aufkleber von 1880 bis heute im Deutschen Historischen Museum, Berlin | Ozan Keskinkilic


– Articles –

Changes in the Brazilian Migration Policy between Security and Human Rights Concerns
Fabian Lischkowitz (Freie Universität Berlin)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 963 kB)

Abstract

Many Latin American countries such as Brazil have a long tra-dition of unique migration policies in comparison to Europe or North America. Foreign policy and legal entitlements for im-migrants as well as emigrants have played a key role in this process. More recently, Brazil has been overhauling its migra-tion policy profoundly, addressing both immigration and emi-gration with strong references to international human rights compliance. The proposed legislation claims to de-securitize the state’s practices, while the tendency in other large liberal democracies has been the opposite. This article asks to what extent human rights and security concerns in fact shape the current Brazilian migration policy. Therefore, it presents a qualitative content analysis of the most recent reform process. It furthermore interprets the outcome of this policy by using a theoretical perspective from international political sociology in order to identify the discursive dynamics and power inter-ests responsible for the changes. The result points to interest-ing implications for the broader field of migration policy stud-ies concerning the interplay of factors that lead to rights con-cessions for immigrants, like civil society engagement, national development interests, and combined immigration and emi-gration policy.

Keywords: Brazil; migration policy; human rights; de-securitization; discur-sive dynamics


War is always Gendered even if Women are absent from its Study. A Discussion
Anne Kulemann (University of Kent, Philipps-Universität Marburg)

Artikel | Article (PDF, 559 kB)

Abstract

War and conflict are, arguably, amongst the most gendered po-litical interactions. Through the lens of constructivism, this ar-ticle investigates socially constructed gendered narratives in relation to conflict and violence that are closely linked with military values and assumptions about world order. Analysing the selective gendered media coverage of the Abu Ghraib scandal as an example, the visibility/invisibility/hyper-visibility problem of gender in wartime is elaborated. It is demonstrated how the media discourse on the torture scandal that focused predominantly on female Private First Lynndie England manifests the inequality of women in the military and strongly supports Elshtain’s (1982: 343) thesis that gendered narratives serve certain ends and “operate to forestall consid-erations of possible alternatives to war and peace”. The theo-retical and practical policy implications of silencing gender in war and conflict as well as gaps and silences are discussed.

Keywords: constructivism, discourse, gender visibility, Lynndie England, Abu Ghraib


The Other in International Relations Theory – Trapped Between States and Non-State Actors
Philipp Neubauer (Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Universität Potsdam)

Artikel | Article (PDF, 667 kB)

Abstract

For many states the security environment they find themselves in seems to have changed dramatically in recent years. By simply asking who is the (enemy) other this article explores how well mainstream theoretical approaches to international relations are equipped to make sense of current nternational security developments. By identifying the (enemy) other that informs Waltzian realism as well as approaches that have built upon Waltz’ original formulation, the article contends that these approaches fail to grasp contemporary processes of othering. Adhering to the question of who is the (enemy) other, Hedley Bull’s somewhat forgotten concept of an international society of states is proposed as a possible way forward to better reflect an increasingly diverse set of others in contemporary world politics. Identifying the (enemy) other in Bull’s approach also bears the potential to account for the recent surge in international endeavours under the label of ‘statebuilding’.

Keywords: othering, international relations theory, structural realism, Hedley Bull, international society


Go with the Flow? International Capital Flows and the Euro Crisis
Cédric Maxime Koch (Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Universität Potsdam)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 1171 kB)

Abstract

International capital flows have long been controversially dis-cussed in debates on economic and financial globalisation, both as a benefit to countries and a source of instability. The recent literature suggests a number of mechanisms through which capital flow cycles – from a surge in inflows up to and including their (sudden) stop and reversal – may contribute to crises. This article builds on this by analysing the current Euro crisis from the perspective of international capital flow cycles and showing their particular danger in the European Mone-tary Union (EMU), also with regards to the build-up of macro-economic imbalances. The policy reaction to the Euro crisis does not, to date, seem to have ruled out these dangers. More generally, the interdependencies resulting from a common currency and a single market seem not to have been internal-ised fully into policy-making yet. The analysis holds important implications: It suggests a large and possibly endogenous role of the financial sector in the crisis and in monetary unions generally, highlights the relevance of power relations in Eu-rope, and calls for stronger regulation of capital flows to avoid a repeat of such a devastating crisis.

Keywords: capital flows, Euro crisis, financial markets, macroeconomic im-balances, European Integration

 


 – I reflect –

Macht- und Wissensordnungen im Kleinformat: Reflexionen zur Ausstellung „Angezettelt“. Antisemitische und rassistische Aufkleber von 1880 bis heute im Deutschen Historischen Museum, Berlin
Ozan Keskinkilic

Artikel | Article (PDF, 195 kB)

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