Archive

2016: IReflect Volume 3, Special Issue 1

2016: IReflect Volume 3, Issue 1

2015: IReflect Volume 2, Issue 2

2015: IReflect Volume 2, Issue 1

2014: IReflect Volume 1, Issue 1

IReflect – Student Journal of International Relations

IReflect Vol. 3, 1 (2016)

Vollständige Ausgabe | Complete Issue (PDF, 5340 kB)

– Articles –

Contract Farming: Eine neue Form der Landnahme? Ein Beitrag zur kritisch-theoretischen Beurteilung von Vertragslandwirtschaft | Carla Noever Castelos

Catch me, if you can. International Financial Markets and the Political Economy of Inequality | Cédric Maxime Koch

Die Genese der Ukraine-Krise: Neorealismus und Theorie der sozialen Identität im Vergleich | Ivan Samolovov

The Changing Nature of International Organisations – An Argument for Eclecticism | Steve Biedermann

– I reflect –

Boko Haram: Hard to grasp and even harder to grab | Sebastian Sieber

Bericht vom Gregynog Ideas Lab IV: Summer School on Critical Approaches to International Politics, 13.-18. Juli 2015 in Gregynog Hall, Wales, UK | Claire Luzia Leifert

Book Review on Helen V. Milner’s & Dustin Tingley’s “Sailing the Water’s Edge: The Domestic Politics of American Foreign Policy“ | Gordon Friedrichs


– Articles –

Contract Farming: Eine neue Form der Landnahme? Ein Beitrag zur kritisch-theoretischen Beurteilung von Vertragslandwirtschaft
Carla Noever Castelos (Freie Universität Berlin)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 785 kB)

Abstract

In der Debatte um die Strukturierung des internationalen Agrarsystems rückte in den letzten Jahren das sogenannte Contract Farming (CF) verstärkt in den Fokus: Abnahmeverträge zwischen agrarischen Produzent*innen und weiterverarbeitenden Unternehmen werden von staatlichen entwicklungspolitischen Akteuren häufig als Alternative zu Landraub unterstützt, gleichzeitig heben zivilgesellschaftliche Akteure Gefahren für die beteiligten Produzent*innen hervor. Eine wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit diesem boomenden Produktions-modell findet dagegen kaum statt. Der vorliegende Artikel will daher einen Beitrag zur kritisch-theoretischen Auseinandersetzung mit vertragslandwirtschaftlichen Modellen leisten. Er versucht aufzuzeigen, wie CF aus der Perspektive der Critical Agrarian Studies mithilfe des an Marx‘ Konzept der ursprünglichen Akkumulation anknüpfenden Landnahmetheorems gerahmt werden kann. Er stellt überdies dar, wie CF in der Diskussion um die aktuelle Wiederentdeckung des ländlichen Raums verortet werden kann. Dabei wird argumentiert, dass CF eine neue Form der Landnahme und eine Strategie im Kontext einer Neustrukturierung der Landwirtschaft durch die Expansion von kapitalistischen Produktionsweisen auf bisher nicht-kapitalistische Bereiche sein kann. Schließlich wird ein Vorschlag zur empirischen Prüfung dieser theoretischen Annahme anhand von Beispielverträgen aus Lateinamerika und der Auswertung bestehender Fallstudien unterbreitet.

Keywords: Contract Farming, Critical Agrarian Studies, Landnahme, Land Grabbing, ursprüngliche Akkumulation


Catch me, if you can. International Financial Markets and the Political Economy of Inequality
Cédric Maxime Koch (American University, Washington D.C.)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 231 kB)

Abstract

Inequality in terms of income and wealth is rising across the developed world, as confirmed, for instance, by recent publications by Thomas Piketty. This article takes a political economy approach to explain this phenomenon and argues that the modus of international market integration since at least the 1970s is indispensable to understand the dynamics contributing to rising inequality. In particular, Fritz Scharpf’s theory of positive and negative integration as well as Susan Strange’s concept of structural power are applied to discern the modus of international economic integration. Two sources of rising inequality are found: (1) higher and increasing returns on capital compared to income from labour due to public entities’ inability to effectively perform taxation policy in the current system, and (2) states’ declining ability to sustain an inequality-reducing welfare state due to the structural power that firms and individuals derive from the modus of financial globalisation. Combining these findings and their implications for policy, the article concludes that inequality will continue to grow until positive integration in the form of substantial international regulation and coordination of taxation is achieved.

Keywords: financial globalisation, structural power, positive integration, income inequality, taxation


Die Genese der Ukraine-Krise: Neorealismus und Theorie der sozialen Identität im Vergleich
Ivan Samolovov (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 278 kB)

Abstract

Im Zuge des Ukraine-Konflikts haben Kommentatoren sowohl Russland als auch den Westen kritisiert. Letzterem werden eine naive Expansionspolitik und das Ignorieren der berechtigten Sorgen der Russen zugeschrieben. Dieser Artikel versucht nahezulegen, dass sowohl die sogenannten Russland-Versteher, als auch Russland-Kritiker nicht nur einfach ihren politischen Verpflichtungen gerecht werden wollen, sondern sich auch bestimmter Ontologien oder Weltbilder bedienen, die auf unterschiedliche Antworten ‚vorprogrammiert‘ sind. Die Untersuchung der beiden Denkmuster, welche sich auf den Neorealismus und die Theorie der sozialen Identität stützen, trägt zum einen zur Klärung der Meinungs-verschiedenheiten bei und ermöglicht zum anderen eine ausgewogenere Analyse der Krise.

Keywords: Ukraine-Konflikt, Neorealismus, Social Identity Theory, Ontologie, Russland-Versteher


The Changing Nature of International Organisations – An Argument for Eclecticism
Steve Biedermann (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 510 kB)

Abstract

Since studying international organisations (IOs) became a field of increasing interest, the need for a comprehensive approach to analyse them and their importance for International Relations (IR) became evident. Mainstream IR theories treat IOs following their varying theoretical frameworks. As a consequence, IOs can be regarded as instruments of states (neorealism), arenas for decision-making processes (neoliberal institutionalism) and actors in international politics (social constructivism), but there is no approach combining these different concepts. This opens the door for using eclecticism to answer the question of how IOs can be studied in a more comprehensive fashion in order to include the different roles that are ascribed to them. The understanding of the dynamic character of IOs roles helps to determine their relevance, influence, and abilities. To illustrate the changing nature of IOs, the United Nations (UN) will be used as an example.

Keywords: International Organisations, International Relations Theory,
Organisational Change, Research Methodology, United Nations


 – I reflect –

Boko Haram: Hard to grasp and even harder to grab
Sebastian Sieber

Artikel | Article (PDF, 195 kB)

Bericht vom Gregynog Ideas Lab IV: Summer School on Critical Approaches to International Politics, 13.-18. Juli 2015 in Gregynog Hall, Wales, UK
Claire Luzia Leifert

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 175 kB)

“Sailing the Water’s Edge – sailing to nowhere?” Book review on Helen V. Milner’s & Dustin Tingley’s “Sailing the Water’s Edge: The Domestic Politics of American Foreign Policy”
Gordon Friedrichs

Artikel | Article (PDF, 146 kB)





IReflect – Student Journal of International Relations

IReflect Vol. 2, 2 (2015)

◊ Vollständige Ausgabe – Complete Issue

– Articles –

Einwanderungskontrolle im internationalen See- und Flüchtlingsrecht – Effektive Schutzpflichten oder willkommene Schlupflöcher? | Paula Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik

Hegemon wider Willen? – Die Rolle Deutschlands im Management der europäischen Finanzkrise | Lucas Schramm

Violence against Non-combatants and Participation Choices in Civil Wars – Towards a Prospect-Theoretical Framework | Julian Niklas Pohl

Disengagement from the Middle East and the Pivot to Asia: An Assessment of Changes within US Grand Strategy between 2003 and 2014 | Willian Moraes Roberto, João Arthur da Silva Reis

Hard and Soft Power – Two Sides of the Same Coin? A Quantitative Examination | Sascha Riaz

– I reflect –

Vom internationalen Paria zum regionalen Partner? Das Atomabkommen mit dem Iran und dessen geopolitische Implikationen | Josef Westermayr

“Review 2014” – Between Rethinking and Rebranding German Foreign Policy | Randolf Carr

“One Belt – One Road“ – An Old but Non-Nostalgic Path | Luping Zhang


– Articles –

♦ Einwanderungskontrolle im internationalen See- und Flüchtlingsrecht – Effektive Schutzpflichten oder willkommene Schlupflöcher?
Paula Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 605 kB)

Abstract

Dieser Artikel analysiert, welchen völkerrechtlichen Regeln und Pflichten Staaten bei der Kontrolle von Einwanderung auf See unterliegen. Vor dem Hintergrund vermehrter Anstren-gungen von Zielstaaten, Einwanderung über den Seeweg zu verhindern und zu bekämpfen, wird untersucht, welche Rolle das Seerecht in diesem spezifischen Kontext spielt und welche Reichweite das Verbot des Refoulement in der Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention jenseits des Staatsgebietes hat. Dabei wird argumentiert, dass die Rechte der Staaten einerseits und der Migrant_innen andererseits auf völkerrechtlicher Ebene zumindest unter Rückgriff auf andere menschenrechtliche Verträge ausreichend bestimmt sind. Schlupflöcher ergeben sich allerdings durch die Kooperation von Zielstaaten mit Herkunfts- und Transitstaaten.

Keywords: Einwanderungskontrolle, Seevölkerrecht, Menschenrechte, Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention, Extraterritorialität


♦ Hegemon wider Willen? – Die Rolle Deutschlands im Management der europäischen Finanzkrise
Lucas Schramm (Universität Trier)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 678 kB)

Abstract

Das Management der europäischen Finanzkrise hat zu einer beispiellosen Abfolge von intergouvernementalen Gipfeln auf höchster politischer Ebene und zu weitreichenden Reformen im Institutionengefüge von EU und Eurozone geführt. Medial wurde dabei oft der Eindruck vermittelt, dass Deutschland aus einer Position der wirtschaftlichen Stärke heraus agiert und die Governance-Strukturen nach seinem Willen geformt habe. Nicht selten wurde die Bundesrepublik dabei auch als Hege-mon bezeichnet. Bei genauerer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass Deutschland in der Finanzkrise nicht die politische Füh-rungsrolle übernommen hat, die ihm seine wirtschaftliche Vormachtstellung in Europa erlauben würde und die im Einklang mit der (neo-) realistischen Theorie und dem Konzept eines echten Hegemons stünde. Statt die Lasten einer Führerschaft zu übernehmen, standen – auch aufgrund institutionel-ler und mentaler Restriktionen – nicht selten eigene politische und wirtschaftliche Interessen im Vordergrund.

Keywords: Deutschland, europäische Finanzkrise, Neorealismus, Hegemon, Führung


♦ Violence against Non-combatants and Participation Choices in Civil Wars – Towards a Prospect-Theoretical Framework
Julian Niklas Pohl (Freie Universität Berlin)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 515 kB)

Abstract

Why do some individuals join armed groups in civil wars while others remain civilian bystanders? Why are civilians willing to rebel at all, given the costs and risks associated with the life of a combatant? Offering a critique of a seminal rationalist con-tribution to the discourse (Kalyvas and Kocher 2007), this ar-ticle develops a prospect-theoretical framework of violence against non-combatants and participation choices in civil wars. It substantiates the idea of a causal link between vio-lence against non-combatants and civilian participation in armed civil war groups. By incorporating prospect theory into the landscape of civil war theories, this article is able to argue that while high levels of violence may facilitate the recruit-ment of active combatants, low levels of violence are beneficial for the establishment of broader support networks. It also ar-gues that previously suffered losses may play a central role in an individual’s choice to participate in an ongoing civil war and that the individual risks of being subject to violence are routinely overestimated by non-combatants.

Keywords: prospect theory, violence against non-combatants, civil wars, combat participation, rationalism


♦ Disengagement from the Middle East and the Pivot to Asia: An Assessment of Changes within US Grand Strategy between 2003 and 2014
Willian Moraes Roberto, João Arthur da Silva Reis (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 438 kB)

Abstract

This paper analyses the evolution of US grand strategy in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific during the two terms of the Obama administration. It assesses the pivot to Asia strategy conceived as an attempt to refocus the US military and diplo-matic presence in the Asia-Pacific as well as the attempt to disengage from the Middle East, where it had been involved in two wars for more than ten years. We argue that the Middle Eastern regional balance of power’s collapse has entangled the US in the region and that the pivot to Asia was difficult to im-plement. In addition, new regional developments in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East have directly affected US strategic planning, once more pressuring Washington to reshape its strategic policies. Hence, the Obama administration faces a scenario in which intentions to engage the Asia-Pacific remain unfulfilled and in which the disengagement from the Middle East has been interrupted.

Keywords: Pivot to Asia, Middle East, Iraq War, US foreign policy, China-US Relations

♦ Hard and Soft Power – Two Sides of the Same Coin? A Quantitative Examination
Sascha Riaz (Freie Universität Berlin)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 1204 kB)

Abstract

This article closes a gap in the scholarly literature by examining the empirical relationship between Joseph Nye’s concept of soft power and hard power capabilities. While there are many studies that assess the soft power of a single country, most commonly the United States, no quantitative analysis of the relationship between hard and soft power has yet been conducted. Within the scope of a principal component analysis (PCA) based on data collected across 53 countries, I will demonstrate that hard and soft power are empirically largely indistinguishable in today’s world. Nevertheless, excluding the United States from the analysis leads to a more nuanced result: While some resources of soft power, such as innovative capacity or brands with international standing, generally seem to be strongly associated with hard power, other dimensions such as popular culture or scientific success depend on much more than hard power.

Keywords: Soft Power, Hard Power, Principal Component Analysis


 – I reflect –

♦ Vom internationalen Paria zum regionalen Partner? Das Atomabkommen mit dem Iran und dessen geopolitische Implikationen
Josef Westermayr

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 409 kB)

♦ “Review 2014” – Between Rethinking and Rebranding German Foreign Policy
Randolf Carr

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 420kB)

♦ “One Belt, One Road” – An Old but Non-Nostalgic Path
Luping Zhang

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 408 kB)




IReflect – Student Journal of International Relations

IReflect Vol. 2, 1 (2015)

Vollständige Ausgabe | Complete Issue (PDF, 4927 kB)

– Articles –

Hegemonic Masculinity, Victimhood and Male Bodies as ‘Battlefields’ in Eastern DR Congo | Hanno Brankamp

Memory Building within the Colombian Conflict: How Do Films Contribute? An Analysis of Three Films | Mia Schöb

Cocaine – Symbol of the Uniting and Dividing Forces of Globalisation? | Christian Küsters

The Divided Union: Why the EU Did not Agree on a Comprehensive Financial Transaction Tax. A Comparative Analysis of the German and British Positions | Felix Rüdiger

– I reflect –

Looking at Global Politics through the Lens of Indigeneity Interview with Sheryl Lightfoot, Canada Research Chair of Global Indigenous Rights and Politics, University of British Columbia | Claire Luzia Leifert

Konferenzbericht zur 8. General Conference des European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) in Glasgow, 3. bis 6. September 2014 | Laura Peitz


– Articles –

Hegemonic Masculinity, Victimhood and Male Bodies as ‘Battlefields’ in Eastern DR Congo
Hanno Brankamp (University of St Andrews)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 657 kB)

Abstract

While sexual violence against women prominently features on the agendas of international and local actors, sexual crimes against men and boys are vastly neglected. This article seeks
to examine the interrelation between notions of victimhood, masculinity, and gender as structural factors in armed conflict, and takes sexual violence against men in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) as a case in point. In particular, the concept of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ serves as an alternative, but not exclusive explanatory model for the use of sexual violence and rape during conflicts in the Eastern DRC. In contrast to previous studies, the focus lies on the interaction between widespread notions of ‘female’ victimhood and ‘male’ perpetration that serve as drivers for the emergence of gendered hierarchies, which sanction hegemonic forms of masculinity. The article shows how these rival versions of masculinity in the DRC determine each other’s intensity and prevalence, and how the lack and/or exaltation of these masculinities can translate into predatory behaviour, such as the targeted use of sexual violence against men and women.

Keywords: Hegemonic Masculinity, Sexual Violence, Eastern Congo, Gender Roles, Victimhood, Male Bodies, War Rape.


Memory Building within the Colombian Conflict: How Do Films Contribute? An Analysis of Three Films
Mia Schöb (The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 837 kB)

Abstract

This paper adopts an anthropological approach to critically analysing how cinema contributes to memory-building processes and, through its particular discourse, creates potential for long-term reconciliation in conflict-affected societies – as opposed to international concepts like transitional justice. Colombia, a country with a half-century-old armed civilian conflict and an on-going transitional justice process, serves as a case study. Three Colombian films are analysed to this end. The analysis shows that the films follow a different logic than the transitional justice process that seeks to soften the confrontational line between ‘victims’ and ‘perpetrators’. By creating a common ‘Other’ – the ‘armed actor’ – for both the target audience of the films, the urban upper and middle classes, and the peasant victims whose stories these films tell, they contribute to addressing more fundamental fragmentations in the Colombian society, namely the apathy of large parts of the urban society, which hamper reconciliation and peace beyond the victim-perpetrator dichotomy.

Keywords: Memory, Critical Discourse Analysis, Cinema, Reconciliation, Transitional Justice


Cocaine – Symbol of the Uniting and Dividing Forces of Globalisation?
Christian Küsters (Aarhus Universitet)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 667 kB)

Abstract

This article asks to what extent cocaine symbolises uniting and dividing tendencies of globalisation for continents, peoples, and societies. Cocaine is used as an example to show the magnitude to which globalised networks of communication, transport, and market mechanisms exert uniting as well as dividing power. Following its geographical route from production via trafficking to consumption, different cases in point will be studied to show globalization’s features and interlinkages with the global drug business. The paper reveals that concerning cocaine, the increasing compression of time and space through progress in communication and transport does have uniting effects on a large scale but divides societies at the local level.

Keywords: Globalisation, Cocaine, Trafficking, War on Drugs


The Divided Union: Why the EU Did not Agree on a Comprehensive Financial Transaction Tax. A Comparative Analysis of the German and British Positions
Felix Rüdiger (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 758 kB)

Abstract

This paper investigates two EU member states’ disagreement over the introduction of a Financial Transaction Tax (FTT) in the aftermath of the financial crisis. By using Schirm’s societal approach, it conducts a comparative analysis of the German and British governmental positions between 2011 and 2013 seeking to explain why Germany approved an FTT while Great Britain strictly opposed such a tax. Following the societal approach, it argues that the governments’ diverging positions were strongly influenced by domestic economic interests, societal ideas and regulatory institutions: While more regulation-friendly societal ideas and institutions dominated the government’s decision in Germany, the UK’s distinct interest in supporting its financial sector and keeping “light-touch” regulation in place led to its refusal of an FTT.

Keywords: Financial Transaction Tax, financial market regulation, societal approach, Comparative Political Economy


 – I reflect –

Looking at Global Politics through the Lens of Indigeneity Interview with Sheryl Lightfoot, Canada Research Chair of Global Indigenous Rights and Politics, University of British Columbia
Claire Luzia Leifert

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 534 kB)


Konferenzbericht zur 8. General Conference des European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) in Glasgow, 3. bis 6. September 2014
Laura Peitz

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 535 kB)




IReflect – Student Journal of International Relations

IReflect Vol. 1, 1 (2014)

◊ Vollständige Ausgabe | Complete Issue (PDF, 6772 kB)

– Articles –

The EU’s Response to the Darfur Crisis. Explaining the Emergence of EUFOR Tchad/RCA from a Multiple-Streams-Perspective | Johanna Bögel

The unified representation of disagreement – What the Serbia-Kosovo deal tells us about the real potential of the EU´s High Representative | Hannah Gundert

Geteiltes Leid, halbes Leid, halber Konflikt? Eine Untersuchung des Einflusses von Naturkatastrophen auf zwischenstaatliche Kriege und Konflikte | Felix Schulte

“Tripping up on Access and Benefit Sharing”: Regime Conflict between the TRIPS Agreement and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity | Florence Wild

Norms between Facticity and Validity. On the use of the Theory of Communicative Action in Constructivist IR | Alexander Graef

– I reflect –

To Bury a Relic is to Free Our Generation: New Impetus for Nuclear Disarmament Now | Maximilian Hoell, Jozef Kosc, Karlijn Jans

Konferenzbericht zum 1st IAPSS World Congress „The Limits of Global Governance“ (Thessaloniki, 31.03- 03.04.2014) | Anne Reiff, Stefan Wallaschek


– Articles –

The EU’s Response to the Darfur Crisis. Explaining the Emergence of EUFOR Tchad/RCA from a Multiple-Streams-Perspective
Johanna Bögel (Maastricht University)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 631 kB)

Abstract

This paper investigates the emergence of the European Security and Defence Policy mission European Union Force Tchad/RCA as the European Union’s answer to the Darfur crisis. It does so by applying Kingdon’s Multiple-Streams-Model to an ESDP context and identifies the former French foreign minister as the ‘policy entrepreneur’ of the mission. It analyses how he steered developments within all three ‘streams’, the problem-, policy- and politics-stream, and coupled them when a ‘window of opportunity’ emerged so that EUFOR Tchad/RCA was coupled to the Darfur-crisis as the European response. This paper’s added-value lies in testing and adapting the theoretical framework to an ESDP context, thereby challenging Kingdon’s assumption of stream-independence but affirming the theory’s explanatory power and extending it beyond the context of the nation-state. Additionally, it illustrates the theory’s applicability beyond the policy-formation stages.

Keywords: Multiple-Stream-Model; EUFOR Tchad/RCA; Darfur crisis; ESDP; policy-formation


The unified representation of disagreement – What the Serbia-Kosovo deal tells us about the real potential of the EU´s High Representative
Hannah Gundert (Charles University Prague)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 525 kB)

Abstract

The initiation of a High Representative (HR) of the European Union (EU) for Foreign and Security Policy by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 caused hopeful speculations about a more effective and united EU external policy. A few years later, the evaluation of the post has led to resignation among observers. This capability-expectations gap as described by Helwig (2013) can hardly be closed regarding the capabilities. Instead, the expectations of how the HR can realistically function should be revised. The successful EU brokerage of negotiations between Serbia and Kosovo resulting in a “historic deal” in spring 2013 as one of the greatest accomplishments of the HR so far can be used as a case study on how the specific characteristics of the HR – representing not-unified member states’ opinions – can actually lead to positive foreign policy results. Thus, this example proves that the realistic potential of the more technical than proactive position should be the scale on which to measure the HR’s work in the future.

Keywords: EU Foreign Policy, High Representative, capability, expectations gap, Kosovo, Serbia, ‘historic deal’


Geteiltes Leid, halbes Leid, halber Konflikt? Eine Untersuchung des Einflusses von Naturkatastrophen auf zwischenstaatliche Kriege und Konflikte
Felix Schulte (Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 2137 kB)

Abstract

Woche für Woche erreichen uns Meldungen von verheerenden Naturkatastrophen. Gleichzeitig ist auch im vergangenen Jahr 2013 die Zahl an Kriegen und gewaltsamen Konflikten gestie­gen. Was passiert, wenn beide Phänomene aufeinandertref­fen? Bisherige Studien kommen hierbei zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen. In dieser Untersuchung wird ein Modell entwor­fen, das kurzzeitige Konfliktreduktionen mithilfe einer durch gegenseitige Solidarität hervorgerufenen Diskurstransforma­tion erklärt. Zwei zwischenstaatliche Konflikte bestätigen die Vermutung: Im griechisch-türkischen Konflikt ließ die mediale Berichterstattung ein window of opportunity entstehen, das Entscheidungsträger auf beiden Seiten erkannten und nutzten. Im Kaschmir-Konflikt dagegen verhinderten fehlende Solidari­tätsbekundungen das Entstehen eines solchen. Eine das most similar systems design ergänzende quantitative Auswertung zeigt, dass Naturkatastrophen in vielen Fällen eine Abkühlung des Konfliktes bewirken. Sie sorgen entgegen der häufig geäu­ßerten Vermutung nur äußerst selten für eine Konfliktver­schärfung

Keywords: Zwischenstaatliche Kriege, Naturkatastrophen, Griechenland, Türkei, Indien, Pakistan


“Tripping up on Access and Benefit Sharing”: Regime Conflict between the TRIPS Agreement and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity
Florence Wild (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 571 kB)

Abstract

This paper defines and conceptualizes regime conflict as a contemporary field of regime theory, drawing on international law theory and constructivist approaches. It suggests a framework to evaluate both the malignancy of conflict as well as the normative struggle of regimes to secure prevalence over one another in a given issue area. The notion of strategic inconsistencies by means of issue linkage is introduced as a destabilizing force, further illustrated in the empirical example of regime conflict between the WTO TRIPS Agreement and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity in the intellectual property rights regime.

Keywords: Regime theory, regime conflict, WTO, TRIPS, CBD, intellectual property rights, international law, global economic governance


Norms between Facticity and Validity. On the use of the Theory of Communicative Action in Constructivist IR
Alexander Graef (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin)

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 555 kB)

Abstract

Echoing the critique formulated by Tine Hanrieder, this paper revisits the way the Theory of Communicative Action (TCA) has been applied in the field of International Relations. Despite their heavy reliance upon Habermasian concepts, empirical studies based on the TCA have reified the ‘better argument’, thereby transforming the theory’s procedural yardstick for truth into a simple compliance-mechanism. Analytically, this leads to a structural bias in the conception of norms as social facts whose validity remains unaffected by human interaction. Normatively, the critical potential of the TCA is lost, because scholars are unable to assess the legitimacy of the reified discursive outcomes. In order to address both shortcomings, I will point to the dual quality of norms as it has been especially highlighted by Antje Wiener. In the conclusion, however, it will be argued that while Wiener is able to solve the analytical dilemma via the concept of ‘contestedness’, there still remains a normative challenge.

Keywords: theory of communicative action, norms, constructivism, contestedness, normativity


 – I reflect –

To Bury a Relic is to Free Our Generation: New Impetus for Nuclear Disarmament Now
Maximilian Hoell, Jozef Kosc, Karlijn Jans

◊ Artikel | Article (PDF, 480 kB)


Konferenzbericht zum 1st IAPSS World Congress „The Limits of Global Governance“ (Thessaloniki, 31.03- 03.04.2014)
Anne Reiff, Stefan Wallaschek

Artikel | Article(PDF, 488 kB)

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